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enhanced interrogation techniques manual

The letter was addressed to Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey observing that: “… information indicates that the Bush administration may have systematically implemented, from the top down, detainee interrogation policies that constitute torture or otherwise violate the law.”, “Because these apparent ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ were used under cover of Justice Department legal opinions, the need for an outside special prosecutor is obvious.”. A bipartisan report in released 2008 stated that: a February 2002 memorandum signed by President George W. Bush, stating that the Third Geneva Convention guaranteeing humane treatment to prisoners of war did not apply to al-Qaeda or Taliban detainees, and a December 2002 memo signed by former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, approving the use of “aggressive techniques” against detainees held at Guantanamo Bay, as key factors that lead to the extensive abuses. “If we were to shut down this program and restrict the CIA to methods in the Field Manual, we could lose vital information from senior al Qaida terrorists, and that could cost American lives,” Bush said. In December 2007 it became known that the CIA had destroyed videotapes depicting prisoners being interrogated. This paper will discuss the leaked techniques approved by the Bush administration then later denied by Obama. Jane Mayer, author of the Dark Side, quotes Zelikow as predicting that “America’s descent into torture will in time be viewed like the Japanese internments,” in that “(f)ear and anxiety were exploited by zealots and fools.”. so we can fix the link as soon as possible. Debates concerning effectiveness or reliability of techniques. The issues involving enhanced interrogation techniques are still alive today. Another memo released on the same day advises that “the waterboard,” does “not violate the Torture Statute.” It also cites a number of warnings against torture, including statements by President Bush and a then-new Supreme Court ruling “which raises possible concerns about future US judicial review of the [interrogation] Program.”. The congressmen involved in calling for such an investigation included John Conyers, Jan Schakowsky, and Jerrold Nadler. You think of torture, you think of some horrendous physical act done to an individual. Many of the interrogation techniques used in the SERE program, including waterboarding, cold cell, long-time standing, and sleep deprivation were previously considered illegal under U.S. and international law and treaties at the time of Abu Zubaydah’s capture. The UN report called for cessation of the US-termed “enhanced interrogation” techniques, as the UN sees these methods as a form of torture. Michael Chertoff, the Homeland Security Chief under Bush, declared that the TV series 24 “reflects real life” – despite the series depicting its main character as encountering different “ticking time bombs” 12 times a day on average. Former Washington Post writer Peter Carlson notes that when it became known U.S. troops were waterboarding Filipino guerrilla fighters in 1898, author Mark Twain remarked, “To make him confess what? Hypothermia: The prisoner is left to stand naked in a cell kept near 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees Celsius), while being regularly doused with cold water in order to increase the rate at which heat is lost from the body. Air Force Reserve Colonel Steve Kleinman stated that the CIA “chose two clinical psychologists who had no intelligence background whatsoever, who had never conducted an interrogation… to do something that had never been proven in the real world.” Associates of Mitchell and Jessen were skeptical of their methods and believed they did not possess any data about the impact of SERE training on the human psyche. International calls on Obama to investigate and prosecute. Either way. Subsequent disclosures in 2010 revealed that Jose Rodriguez Jr., head of the directorate of operations at the CIA from 2004 to 2007, ordered the tapes destroyed because what they showed was so horrific they would be “devastating to the CIA,” and that “the heat from destroying is nothing compared to what it would be if the tapes ever got into public domain.” The New York Times reported that according to “some insiders” an inquiry into the C.I.A.’s secret detention program which analysed these techniques “might end with criminal charges for abusive interrogations.” In an Op-ed for the New York Times Tom Kean and Lee Hamilton, chair and vice chair of the 9/11 Commission stated: As a legal matter, it is not up to us to examine the C.I.A.’s failure to disclose the existence of these tapes. A report by Human Rights First (HRF) and Physicians for Human Rights (PFH) stated that these techniques constitute torture. Mitchell and Jessen applied this idea to Abu Zubaydah during his interrogation. Nonetheless, Mora has maintained that detainee treatment has been consistent with the law since the January 15, 2003 suspension of previously approved interrogation tactics. The High Court judges also stated that a criminal investigation, by the UK’s attorney general, into possible torture has begun. This report was based on previously classified documents made available by the Obama administration in 2010. Report… is a record of interviews with black site detainees, conducted between October 6 and 11 and December 4 and 14, 2006, after their transfer to Guantánamo. “Because specific intent is an element of the offense, the absence of specific intent negates the charge of torture”, Jay Bybee, then the Assistant Attorney General, wrote in the memo dated August 1, 2002. Congressional officials have stated that the attitude in the briefings was “quiet acquiescence, if not downright support.” Senator Bob Graham, who CIA records claim was present at the briefings, has stated that he was not briefed on waterboarding in 2002 and that CIA attendance records clash with his personal journal. Internal FBI memos and press reports have pointed to SERE training as the basis for some of the harshest techniques authorised for use on detainees by the Pentagon in 2002 and 2003. Danner quotes the ICRC report as saying that, “in many cases, the ill-treatment to which they were subjected while held in the CIA program, either singly or in combination, constituted torture. Military interrogators with knowledge of the sources of the information deny that “enhanced interrogation” eventually led to finding and killing Osama Bin Laden A group of interrogators contradicting former Bush administration Defense Secretary Rumsfeld’s claim that “enhanced interrogation” produced the leads that ultimately led to Osama Bin Laden, asserted that the key piece of information, a courier’s nickname, was not divulged “during torture, but rather several months later, when [detainees] were questioned by interrogators who did not use abusive techniques.”. Following the release of the CIA documents and now released from non disclosure agreements he had signed Philip Zelikow, a former State Department lawyer and adviser to then-Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, stated that he had argued it was unlikely that “any federal court would agree (that the approval of harsh interrogation techniques) … was a reasonable interpretation of the Constitution.” He was told to destroy copies of his own memo and claimed that the Bush Administration had ordered that other dissenting legal advice be collected and destroyed. So here is the sentence you have to give. According to the Washington Post the request was denied because Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey felt that: officials acted in “good faith” when they sought legal opinions, and that the lawyers who provided them used their best judgment. Where did the enhanced interrogation techniques used at Guantánamo originate? Central Intelligence Agency. Or lies? It is as yet unclear when US government officials first adopted the term enhanced interrogation, and there is no evidence they were aware of its antecedents in Gestapo terminology. “They took good knowledge and used it in a bad way,” another of the sources said. 17. According to Danner, the report contains sections on “methods of ill-treatment” including suffocation by water, prolonged stress standing, beatings by use of a collar, beating and kicking, confinement in a box, prolonged nudity, sleep deprivation and use of loud music, exposure to cold temperature/cold water, prolonged use of handcuffs and shackles, threats, forced shaving, and deprivation/restricted provision of solid food. '” A United Nations report denounced the US abuse of prisoners as tantamount to torture. Dick Cheney stated: “I know specifically of reports… that lay out what we learnt through the interrogation process and what the consequences were for the country”, however the only examples publicly released that attempt to support this claim are: The claim that the waterboarding of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed helped prevent a planned attack on Los Angeles in 2002 – which ignores the fact that he wasn’t captured until 2003, and Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi who had confessed that Iraq had trained al Qaeda in the use of weapons of mass destruction which was then used as justification for the subsequent invasion of Iraq – a confession now known to be false. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. According to ABC News, former and current CIA officials have come forward to reveal details of interrogation techniques authorized in the CIA. Although the Army Field Manual contains a number of express and implied protections to ensure that these techniques are not abused, for the reasons that follow, the Committee is right to raise concerns about the continued authorization of Physical Separation and Field Expedient Separation even while other Enhanced Interrogation Techniques have been expressly prohibited by, inter alia, the … In an article on the euphemisms invented by the media that also criticized NPR, Glenn Greenwald discussed the enabling “corruption of American journalism”: This active media complicity in concealing that our Government created a systematic torture regime, by refusing ever to say so, is one of the principal reasons it was allowed to happen for so long. The Court reaffirmed that those involved in mistreatment of detainees violate US and international law. Why is standing (by prisoners) limited to four hours?” There have been no comments from either the Pentagon or US army spokespeople in Iraq on Karpinski’s accusations. Debates about whether “enhanced interrogation” constitutes torture. On June 8, 2008, fifty-six House Democrats asked for an independent investigation, raising the possibility that authorising these techniques may constitute a crime by Bush administration officials. In the letter CIA Director Panetta wrote Senator McCain that. A CIA memo on the various forms of harsh interrogation techniques from the CIA's Operational Psychologist. A third memo instructs interrogators to keep records of sessions in which “enhanced interrogation techniques” are used. In early 2002, following Abu Zubaydah's capture, assertedly Jose Rodriguez head of the CIA's clandestine service, asked his superiors for authorization for what Rodriquez called an "alternative set of interrogation procedures." US Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia said on BBC Radio 4 that since these methods are not intended to punish they do not violate the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, barring “cruel and unusual punishment”, and as such may not be unconstitutional. We appreciate your help. They also cite the U.S. Office of the Inspector General report which concluded that “SERE-type interrogation techniques constitute ‘physical or mental torture and coercion under the Geneva conventions. ), Danner provides excerpts of interviews with detainees, including Abu Zubaydah, Walid bin Attash, and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. we first learned about the facilitator/courier’s nom de guerre from a detainee not in CIA custody in 2002. In the end, no detainee in CIA custody revealed the facilitator/courier’s full true name or specific whereabouts. Experts advising the Bush administration on new interrogation rules warn that harsh techniques used since 2001 terrorist attacks are outmoded, amateurish and unreliable. Shortly before the end of Bush’s second term newsmedia in other countries were opining that under the United Nations Convention Against Torture the US is obligated to hold those responsible to account under criminal law. On December 14, 2005, the Detainee Treatment Act was passed into law, specifically clarifying that interrogations techniques be limited to those explicitly authorized by the Army Field Manual. The program subjected trainees to torture techniques such as “waterboarding . That’s an honorable position. Abdomen strikes: A hard, open-handed slap is dealt to the prisoner’s abdomen. The working group’s final report was signed and delivered to Guantánamo without the knowledge of Mora and the others who had opposed its content. Former President Bush in his published memoirs defends the utility of “enhanced interrogation” techniques and asserts that they are not torture. A March 22, 2005, sworn statement by the former chief of the Interrogation Control Element at Guantánamo said instructors from SERE also taught their methods to interrogators of the prisoners in Cuba. Unable to get satisfaction from the army commanders running the detainee camp, they took their concerns to David Brant, director of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), who alerted Navy General Counsel Alberto J. Mora. History will not judge this kindly.”, At least one adviser to Condoleezza Rice, Philip Zelikow, opposed the new, harsher interrogation techniques. For under unendurable pain a man confesses anything that is required of him, true or false, and his evidence is worthless.”. Various revisions of the extended techniques were issued. The US Supreme Court ruled in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld that, contrary to what the Bush administration advocated, Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions applies to all detainees in the war on terrorism and as such the Military Tribunals used to try suspects were violating the law. The memos were made public by the American Civil Liberties Union, which obtained the three CIA-related documents under Freedom of Information Act requests. Some view these techniques as morally unjustifiable and to others it seems to be a small price to pay for finding the source to stop the War to Terror. The memo is signed by then-CIA director George Tenet and dated January 28, 2003. The statute defines torture ‘Even though it may have worked, I still don’t want you doing it.’ That requires courage. What it prevents: The Army Field Manual specifically prohibits most of the so-called “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques” that the CIA used in its post-9/11 interrogation program, as well as any other techniques that do not comply with domestic or international law. In response, on January 15, 2003, Rumsfeld suspended the approved interrogation tactics at Guantánamo Bay until a new set of guidelines could be produced by a working group headed by General Counsel of the Air Force Mary Walker. Condoleezza Rice ultimately told the CIA the harsher interrogation tactics were acceptable, In 2009 Rice stated, “We never tortured anyone.” And Dick Cheney stated “I signed off on it; so did others.” In 2010, Cheney remained unrepentant, saying, “I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program.” Pressed on his personal view of waterboarding, Karl Rove told the BBC in 2010: “I’m proud that we kept the world safer than it was, by the use of these techniques. Condoleezza Rice specifically mentioned the SERE program during the meeting stating “I recall being told that U.S. military personnel were subjected to training to certain physical and psychological interrogation techniques…”. Stephen Soldz, Steven Reisner and Brad Olson wrote an article describing how the techniques used mimic what was taught in the SERE-program: “the military’s Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape program that trains US Special Operations Forces, aviators and others at high risk of capture on the battlefield to evade capture and to resist ‘breaking’ under torture, particularly through giving false confessions or collaborating with their captors”. The national security orders mandate that interrogation techniques in the Army Field Manual be used by all intelligence and law enforcement services; call … Top US Government officials including Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, George Tenet, Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, and John Ashcroft discussed at length whether or not the CIA could legally use harsh techniques against Abu Zubaydah.Condoleezza Rice specifically mentioned the SERE … According to an item on ABC news in 2007 the CIA removed waterboarding from its list of enhanced interrogation techniques in 2006. The front half of that sentence, you can say; that’s yours, you own that, ‘I don’t want you doing it.’ The back half of that sentence is not yours. US prevention of disclosure by English courts of allegations of torture. The eventual exposure of the CIA's black sites and euphemistically named "enhanced interrogation techniques," or EITs, triggered worldwide horror, condemnation and … Massachusetts senator Edward Kennedy described Bush’s veto as “one of the most shameful acts of his presidency”. The terror suspect, who is being held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, reportedly gave up information that indirectly led to the the 2003 raid in Pakistan yielding the arrest of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, an alleged planner of the September 11, 2001, attacks, Kiriakou said. That, after all, is the teaching of United States v. Altstötter, the Nuremberg case brought against German Justice Department lawyers whose memoranda crafted the basis for implementation of the infamous “Night and Fog Decree.”. This information was discovered through other intelligence means. He said, “Unless Congress overrides the veto, it will go down in history as a flagrant insult to the rule of law and a serious stain on the good name of America in the eyes of the world.”. ABC News reported on April 9, 2008 that “the most senior Bush administration officials discussed and approved specific details of how high-value al Qaeda suspects would be interrogated by the Central Intelligence Agency.” The article states that those involved included: Vice President Cheney, former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Colin Powell, as well as CIA Director George Tenet and Attorney General John Ashcroft. In fact, all of the tactics listed above would later be reported in the International Committee of the Red Cross Report on Fourteen High Value Detainees in CIA Custody as having been used on Abu Zubaydah. General Counsel Mora and Navy Judge Advocate General Michael Lohr believed the detainee treatment to be unlawful, and campaigned among other top lawyers and officials in the Defense Department to investigate, and to provide clear standards prohibiting coercive interrogation tactics. Doctors consulted over the matter advised against using a punch, which could cause lasting internal damage. Jordan Paust concurred by responding to Mukasey’s refusal to investigate and/or prosecute anyone that relied on these legal opinions: it is legally and morally impossible for any member of the executive branch to be acting lawfully or within the scope of his or her authority while following OLC opinions that are manifestly inconsistent with or violative of the law. In early 2002, immediately following Abu Zubaydah’s capture, top US Government officials including Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, George Tenet, Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, and John Ashcroft discussed at length whether or not the CIA could legally use harsh techniques against Abu Zubaydah. Responding to the ruling, David Davis, the Conservative MP and former shadow home secretary, commented: The ruling implies that torture has taken place in the [Binyam] Mohamed case, that British agencies may have been complicit, and further, that the United States government has threatened our high court that if it releases this information the US government will withdraw its intelligence cooperation with the United Kingdom. All that changed — and Zubayda reportedly had a divine revelation — after 30 to 35 seconds of waterboarding, Kiriakou said he learned from the CIA agents who performed the technique. Later, after Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was captured, he just “confirmed” the courier’s pseudonym. Sullivan reports that in 1948 Norway prosecuted German officials for what trial documents termed “Verschärfte Vernehmung” including subjection to cold water, and repeated beatings. An academic analysis by Professor Shane O’Mara of the Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience concluded that “Prolonged stress from the CIA’s harsh interrogations could have impaired the memories of terrorist suspects, diminishing their ability to recall and provide the detailed information the spy agency sought”. For instance, in … The working group based its new guidelines on a legal memo from the United States Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel written by John Yoo and signed by Jay S. Bybee, which would later become widely known as the “Torture Memo.” General Counsel Mora led a faction of the Working Group in arguing against these standards, and argued the issues with Yoo in person. Like to show you a description here but the site won ’ t allow.... 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